Copyright © IJCMAS ICMAUA. All rights reserved



# 3. 2004


The international Journal of Combat Martial Arts and Sciences ICMAUA




Current articles:


The Principles of The Advanced Commando Combat System: Deepak Rao (02.2004)


Modernization trends in physical training of the armed forces of the world: Seema Rao (03.2004)


D.K.K.C. special lecture series seminar: Yin Kenpo the Sun Lung Tang theory of chinese boxing: the "return to Yin state" in Street Combat Kenpo: Reginald Hoover (06.2004)


The Freudian Complex – pudendal inferiorities governing human behaviour: Deepak Rao (08.2004)


Tai Chi: Shing Wai Cheung (08.2004)









By Deepak Rao

Copyright © Deepak Rao. All rights reserved.





Advanced Commando Combat derives its inspiration from Gen Sun Tzu’s ‘The Art Of War’, Sun Tzus military strategies being translated into combat maneuvers.

Hand to hand Combat with or without weapons is very important in building tremendous aggression, self confidence and survival instincts in soldiers. Tremendous research has evolved a unique combat art tailor-made for the Police and Defence Forces

ACCS refers to the principle based Hand to Hand Combat Art specially developed for Commando Close Quarter Battle situations.


This art is the result of our conclusions after extensive training experience over 30 years. We have trained over 10,000 soldiers, policemen and other personnel in full contact fighting. It is not a new art with new series of techniques, but an accumulation of useful principles of existing basic age old arts.


1)       Conventional Martial Arts like Karate, Taekwondo, Judo, Boxing and Wrestling are point-oriented sports, taught separately in a compartmentalized manner confuse the trainee about which technique can be used in an actual combat situation. There is a need to create insecurity, threat and aggression, to bring out the survival instincts in the trainees.

2)       Here, combat is taught by clashing men together with taller, heavier, more aggressive opponents (at different ranges)

3)       By our special drills, situations are created where one does not find time to think/use fixed technique but allows his animal survival instinct to find appropriate technique for the relevant situation thereby letting the mind go free, its own way.

4)       The only goal is effectivity, to terminate / handicap /cripple to the opponent with the slightest effort.

We imbibe useful principles and foul tactics from all martial arts. We reject the limitations and complicated techniques which need years of skill training.


Specifics of the art, ( if any ! )

The aim of the art is simply to cripple, immobilize or eliminate, in the shortest possible time with the most minimum of effort. There is no place for techniques which don’t achieve this goal, as this is not about point fighting or sport combat.

The advantages from various Martial Arts are absorbed & the limitations/ disadvantages are rejected. There is a freedom from styles.

The stance is a narrow upright one, permitting quick springy movements, inspired by Western Boxing. It may be matched or unmatched. This is a street wise stance compared to the deep wide stance of karate.

Footwork is from Fencing, is quick & springy, with a One sided Lead Stance prevailing. Economy of movement, with only small minimum movement.

Balance developed is Dynamic, in motion, rather than in static stances.

Deflective Parrying is preferred to rigid blocking.

Fluidity & flowing with the opponents force is advocated. Resisting force is discouraged.

Interception is preferred over Parry & Counter.

Feinting & Strategies are a translation of Sun- Tzu’s Art Of War

Lead Hand/ Foot Attacks are preferred. All attacks are indirect with feints. Attacks are non focussed, going thru the target.

Non Telegraphic fast movements are preferred to Telegraphic ones.

Fighting is dynamic with Ranges changing from moment to moment.

Each exponent  personalizes the art to suit his requirement, his size & his skills.

Rhythm is a broken one, and never regular attack – parry – counter type.

Strong In Fighting.

Range fighting is a characteristic feature .

One learns to fight in all Ranges, namely

Kicking Range

Punching Range

Elbow-Knee-Head Butt Range

Grappling Range

Groundwork Range

The foul Tactics are absorbed & the limitations/ rules are rejected.


Specifics of the Kicking Range-

Inspiration from Japanese Karate, Chinese Shaolin Kung Fu, & Korean Taekwondo. The Thrusting movement is replaced by a no locking extension of the knee. Kicking with the lead foot is the lead foot is nearer to the opponent. Non telegraphic precision fast kicks preferred to the slow powerful telegraphic ones. A dynamic stance which is non static and always moving is used.

Low kicks to the groin and kicks which break the knee(only a 12 kg force can break the knee) are preferred to high kicks which require years of training.

Kicking the groin or the knees is more damaging than kicking the body.


Specifics of the Punching Range-

Inspiration from western Boxing

The Thrusting movement of Karate punches is replaced by a no locking extensions of the elbow. Straight line punches of Eastern arts are replaced by arcing punches of western arts. Punching with the lead hand is preferred. Again, a dynamic stance which is never static and ever moving is used.

Foul Movements of Back fisting, Groin Slamming & body spinning are combined with the boxing actions. Foul attacks to the kidney, back of the head, groin incorporated. A finger jab to the eyes is better than a punch to the face.


Specifics of the Trapping Range-

Inspiration from Wing Tsun Kung Fu and western Boxing

The punching movements of boxing are combined with the sense of feeling ( chi sao ) and Hand immobilizations and traps of Wing Tsun .

Trapping and immobilizing the opponents hand is adopted from Kung-Fu

One learns to feel the opponents energies (rather than see) and sense openings by the ancient Chinese exercise Chi-sao.

The fixed stance of Wing Tsun is replaced by the leading stance.

Wide range of kicks used as opposed to the few straight line kicks of Wing Tsun.


Specifics of the Knee- Elbow Range-

One learns to hit with practically every part of the body.For eg: head, elbow ,forearm ,knee and heel. Inspiration from Filipino Kali & Muoy Thai from Thailand. Attacks with Head butting, Elbow hooking , Kneeing and hitting with any & all parts of the body like the shoulder, hip, foot stomping, eye jabbing, etc used, along with the boxing rhythm. An ever preparedness to switch to the farther punching range or the nearer Grappling range is developed.



Specifics of the Grappling Range-

Inspiration from Japanese JudoKarate, Western Wrestling, Chinese Shaolin Chin-na & Filipino Wrestling .

Jacket Holds replaced by Body grips (since there may be no judo jacket on the opponent ! ) Throwing from Judo, Locking from Filipino wrestling & Leverage from western wrestling & the flowing from Aikido adapted. Head locks & cranks, Neck strangles & shoulder locks used as primary tactics. Impact blows like punching, kicking,etc are permitted. Joint locking and joint breaking from aikido and wrestling are taught. Basic body contact is taught with opponent of various sizes .Eg heavier and taller opponents and the exponent is made to understand the strong and weak forces generated by the opponent. He also loses his fear of close combat with a man double his size.


Specifics of the Groundwork Range-

Inspiration from Japanese Judo, Western Wrestling, & Filipino Wrestling. Jacket Holds replaced by Body grips, (since there may be no judo jacket on the opponent ! ) Pin downs from Judo, Locking from Filipino wrestling & Leverage from western wrestling adapted. Head locks & cranks, Neck strangles, spine breaks & shoulder locks used. Impact blows like punching, kicking, etc are permitted. Foul tactics like Eye gouging, nose pushing & ear grabbing, pinching & biting encouraged. The goals are not to pin the shoulders or hips to the ground, but to destroy the opponent.


Weaponry- ( excluding firearms )

Inspiration from Filipino Kali.

All weapons like sticks, staff, sword, Knife, Nunchaku & formless wpns. Along with attacking with the above, Empty handed defenses to all the above weapons are also taught. Defense to Weapon attacks  by professional experts, as well as by wild aggressive street fighters developed.


Mob fighting

Mob Fighting and fighting in special situations is developed via special drills where various situations are created using various locations and varied weapons used with full contact where injury is encouraged. Men are clashed together (at different ranges) with taller, heavier, more aggressive opponents. By our special drills, situations are created where one does not find time to think/use fixed technique but allows his animal survival instinct to find appropriate technique for the relevant situation thereby letting the mind go free, its own way.


The Defense

The defense aims at deflecting (Parrying) the opponents forces rather than opposing it (blocking) as in Karate .In a strong cyclone, rigid trees get uprooted but the adapting flexible grass reeds always survive. Hence the exponent is taught to be soft yet not yielding ,firm yet not hard. Interception (or landing a counter attack before the opponents attack touches you) is preferred to parrying (or blocking) followed by counter-attack Basic footwork is taken from fencing and boxing. Basic stance is an upright street wise comfortable stance compared to deep wide stance of karate.


Special drills

These aim at teaching body contact and training the exponent in facing multiple opponents and mobs

He is taught to sense the resultant vector of the combined forces of the multiple opponents and to use it to his advantage Hence the force of the mob itself is used to overcome /dissociate the mob


Mental Growth

Along with tremendous physical fitness ,

Mental conditioning (for qualities of endurance, determination, willpower , etc)

Attitude is developed for mental growth where qualities like simplicity, directness, effectivity, openness of mind and fluidity are developed.


In conclusion

The art is based on the principles of simplicity, directness and effectivity. The opponent learns to find technique rather than apply fixed technique .

It teaches spontaneity (Muen Munshi - in Zen Buddism), One thought - one action and no mind (doubtless mind).

ACCS is simply a word to denote the reality in combat, that combat is savage and brutal and knows no style. When faced with a taller, stronger, heavier and more aggressive man you are in a mess and if you know that you will survive.










By Seema Rao

Copyright © Seema Rao. All rights reserved.



Physical training for the armed forces in many parts of the world is still based on the conventional pattern followed for the last century. Many countries have now introduced the modern concepts of Physical training, Here I outline the major changes in training that have set in the physical training curriculum of most armed forces world over in the last decade.


Below is ennumerated the modernization that must set in , or that has already set in, in most developing countries of the world.


1.      A proper warm up technique involving the spine and knees must be taught over conventional method (very important before running).


2.      Abdominal , knee and spinal Exercise should always precede the Cardio Endurance (running) to prevent spondylosis & Arthritis.


3.      The spine should be exercised as rigorously as the abdomen since both are contralateral muscles. Hence an imbalance can result in damage to the spine.


4.      The conventional situp can harm the discs of the neck and the spine and does not cause sufficient work load on the abdominal muscles. This must be replaced by the modern crunch where the lower spine is resting always on the ground.


5.      The conventional leg raises do not directly work out the abdominal muscles but the flexors of the hip and thigh. This be replaced by the bent knee leg and hip raise.


6.      The oblique muscles of the abdomen are ignored thus increasing the chances of Hernia (i.e the prolapse of the intestines, in between the oblique muscles, into the scrotum). Never exercise to work out the obliques, be taught.


7.      Cardiovascular Endurance (running) should always be preceded with a warm up jog of atleast half a km to prevent sudden rise of heart rate and Blood pressure and to ensure the contraction of all muscle fibres (with out warming up only a few muscle fibre groups would be actively recruited).


8.      Correct technique of running be taught i.e. running on the balls of the feet rather then the heels which tends to jar all the joints (ankle, knee, hip, spine) encouraging joint degeneration.


9.      One must be taught how to deal with first, second and third winds during running caused by (respectively) diaphragmatic fatigue, muscle and joint pains (due to lactic Acidosis of anaerobic training) and cardio Respiratory fatigue. Thus the trainees would be capable of better performance.


10.    Strengthening exercise like Conventional Pushup and the Chinup may cause hyper extension of the spine and lead to slipped discs at a later age.  The reverse grip behind the neck chinup and the simple Dip must replace the older versions.


11.    Plenty of variations of the pushup (Dip) be taught to work out the muscles of the fingers, the forearms, the tricep, brachioradialis, Bicep and pectorals (the chest muscles) which are not well exercise by the conventional pushup.


12.    The full squat places a tremendous strain on the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint and the discs of the spine. It must be replaced by the modern half squat.

13.    The conventional squat does not place sufficient load on the inner thigh and Hamstring muscles. Hence wide squats and the lungs be introduced.



4.      For liagmentous strengthening of hip, knee and ankle joints, age old Duck walks, Frog Jumps, Chicken walk, Donkey walk, Monkey walk be taught. It is to be noted that the entire stability of the joint comes only with a good ligament tone.


15.    Flexibility and stretching is a grossly neglected part of training. Ideally equal amount of time should be devoted to stretching as to muscle contraction training to prevent muscle tightness and relative Hyper tonia (increase in tone). Tight muscles which are not stretched cause incoordinated and clumsy movement. They also cause Cerebral bombardment and increase anxiety thereby taking away the soldiers composure. One hour of various flexibility exercise be taught everyday after the strength training.


16.    A soldier walks and runs all the time thus the lower limb muscles are maximally used. Hence special leg conditioning techniques be taught to bring about greater strength, endurance and coordination in the lower limbs.


17.    Most soldiers or servicemen tend to lose muscle bulk and weight during training. Resistance training in the form of weight training be taught to develop isolatory muscle groups (particularly those muscles which are smaller in an individual because of his constitution or heredity need to be developed by training with weights). We must aim to make bulkier soldiers and fitter soldiers to match the size of the enemy counterparts.


18.    Cross training, Circuit Training and various types of cardio Endurance Training be introduced.


19.    Mental training by Yoga, Pranayama, Meditation from the East and Self Hypnosis, positive visualization from the west be taught over an hours session everyday during the COOL DOWN session for : -


(b)                 Imbibing courage, will power, and determination.

(c)                 Instilling composure in the face of a life threatening crisis.

(d)                 Improving Self esteem, self confidence, Discipline and obedience.



These are the major changes that have set in physical training and this is what constitutes the modern day training in Physical fitness for armed forces of the world.








By Reginald Hoover

Copyright 2004 © Soke Reginald Hoover; All Rights Reserved By Dragon Kenpo Karate Consortium



Kenpo is rooted within the Temples Of Shaolin; yet it does seem to manifest a mystical presence in it’s “Return To Yin State”. You would ask; what is the Return To ‘Yin State’ within the Kenpo / Kempo analogy? As all martial arts systems have a typical trademark of their respective styles within their Yin & Yang physical expressive manifestations; so is the case with the devastating art of kenpo karate also! The “ Return To Yin State” is an expression with i personally have coined for this lecture seminar! It refers to the kenpo practitioner’s physical expressive street combat exertion of motion within his/her counter-attacking sequences. Thus providing a quick and formidable recover in establishing the fatal and not so fatal finishing strikes, etc, in escaping the violent attack.


I will now quote the legendary Great Grandmaster Sun Lu Tang concerning Yin & Yang Qi manifestation within the fist. “Opening and closing are natural. This is the same as Tai Ji Quan. The ancients were not able to demonstrate this to others or write it in books. This is the way it is. If the student is able to alternate opening and closing as well as stillness and movement, and comes to a deep understanding of their source, the common root of every posture will be clear and one will obtain their mysterious uses. The central feature of the postures is combination of an empty circle which has form and a formless circle which is full. These two circles represent the principle of the “empty” and “substantial”. Within the postures there apparent emptiness, but the posture is not really empty; it appears to be substantial, but there is reality in emptiness. This qi flows to all places without obstruction. It is rounded and lively without angles. It is without excesses or deficiencies. When manifest, the Six Harmonies are complete. When returning it is hidden as a treasure within. It’s changes are without limit. It’s uses are inexhaustible. Herein lie the real teachings. It is the sum of Tai Ji Quan”[a].


Thus, even though this analogy refers to the internal martial arts; specifically the style of Tai Ji Quan, it’s reference within the both the internal and external fist arts is not contrary. I will explain this first as an explanation of the internal art’s of combining Tai Ji; Xing Yi, and Bagua Quan . Then we will examine this analogy within the basically so called external style’s of Kenpo / Kempo arts. As a basic premise here, I must quote an old saying within the martial arts which states; “Train External to Internal; Train Internal to External”. I feel that this prior statement brings some clarity to the question of how the Kenpo / Kempo arts are related in physical expressive combat training. Therefore, this above statement can be verified within the Kenpo / Kempo Motion Science!


In relation to the Sung Lu Tang ("born Sun Fu Quan 1861-1933"),[b] analogy;


1. There exists the famous Chinese saying “The Taiji never departs from Yin and Yang; Taiji Quan never departs from opening and closing”[c].


2. “In Tai Ji Quan each part of the body has a balance of the “substantial” and “insubstantial”. In general, the leg that supports the most of the weight and parts of the body that applying relatively more force are substantial. The leg that bears less weight and the more passive parts of the body are insubstantial. Every move in Tai Ji Quan seeks to maintain the balance between the two states at all times and in equal proportion”[d].


3. “As described above the Six Harmonies are divided into the ‘Three Internal Harmonies’ (heart harmonizing with intent, intent harmonizing with qi, qi harmonizing with force) and the ‘Three External Harmonies’ (shoulders coordinate with hips, elbows coordinate with knees, and hands coordinate with feet)”[e].


Thus, within the above statements, it can very well be assumed that we have an analogous primer for not only just one martial art style of the internal school of martial thought, but any martial school of thought which incorporate the Yin / Yang method of combat defensive martial training as a standard philosophical conceptuality. Therefore, this context gives rise to both traditional and non-traditional martial training methodologies!


So, this lecture seminar will examine this “Return To Yin State” as a defensive, not offensive application premise!


Let us now observe the fact that the martial arts systems of Xing Yi, Bagua, and Taiji are (“Quan”) or Fist styles. Is it not true that the martial arts systems of Kenpo / Kempo, (“Quan”) or Fist styles also? Though Xing Yi, Bagua, and Taiji are considered internal / soft Quan arts; and the Kenpo / Kempo art’s are considered external / hard Quan arts!


Again in reference to defensive training, does not the soft eventually dissipate to hard and hard dissipate to soft? Is not this purpose of training to gain a system of balance within the martial practitioner’s physical expressive intent? Thus, to produce a highly disciplined, virtuously developed, and extremely skilled martial stylist! We again, can well assume that the above statements are the purpose of every martial art’s instructor, teacher, or master in their respective training concepts for each student, disciple, or stylist under their martial tutorial wing.


This brings us to the question of how do these same martial principles apply equally to both internal and external martial arts defensive training according to the continuous flowing qi within the martial artist’s physical expressive motion? This question will be addressed in the aspects of martial speed; combat martial technique applications; and degrees of martial combative skill respectively:


A. Martial Speed:

1. All martial arts practitioners started their respective training as lower ranking belts. No one just jumped into the Black Belt Ranks and started teaching without first learning the basics of their respective styles. As beginners we digested the training process slowly and with caution. Learning bits and pieces as a premise of eventually putting these pieces together in some type of martially logical order through physical expressive combative form, kata, or technique motion. Our breathing, fluidity, blocking, striking, elbowing, kneeing, and kicking had to be nurtured into effective combative motion in relation to balance, force, and physical application. Finally this effectiveness developed in such manner as to transform our combative motion into expressive style as a practitioner of our respective martial arts systems. Thus, becoming individual practitioner stylists of our martial art! There existed a trademark within our motion in sparring, kata, and weapon’s physical expressiveness which gave other’s which viewed our martial activities the opportunity to spell out what we were expressing. “ Hey, he/she is practicing Jeet Kune Do, Tae Kwan Do, Karate, Aikido, Jujitsu, Shaolin Kung Fu, etc, etc, etc”! Even others could tell what style we were physically expressing.

Although our Speed was not exactly great; we could be distinguished as practitioners of another martial style. Our instructors thought that there was some hope in our developing into instructors ourselves. This was when the one on one, training began with the next highest ranking belt, and continued to the high level brown belts, to even our instructor him/herself! This training involved fine tuning blocks, strikes, throws, body positioning, kata expression, combat tips and especially speed developing in the general sense of getting into proper positioning for executing the most effective kick, punch, strike, elbow, knee, block, and throw.


As one continued to grow within this basic general sense; he / she experienced growth within practice outside the dojo / kwoon etc, digesting knowledge acquired from other outside higher ranking established practitioners and teachers. As well as our own martial research and individual prowess; we began to physically express a speedily effective forceful and powerful punch, strike, knee, kick, throw, and position of the body; etc.


For the so-called hard stylist practitioner, this motion developed into extreme yang physical expression. For the soft stylist practitioner, this same motion developed into extreme yin expression within conceptuality of observation in examining specific parts and points of the body to express a physically harder yin and / or softer yang force impact. Still, the hard-soft & soft-hard stylist practitioners developed this same motion into a blending of the yin and yang physical exertive forceful expressionism in the quest for obtaining some type of balance within delivery, impact, and return to what may be considered a physical dormancy state of observation after failing the violent attacker’s extreme yang attempt of control and potentially fatal harm! Some styles will use just a glance, then return to finish; while some will go as far as ceasing all physical motion, standing over a downed and physically damaged attacker. Others, will glance, further observe, and escape by leaving the scene of combat. These impact motions of physical expressive developments, are as diversified as their respective martial arts systems philosophies, combative methodologies, and moral ideologies on issues of aggressively violent behavioral attempts at life and limb.


Thus, the end result in every case is potentially the same in defensive intention, yet different in conceptual methods of failing the aggressive violent attack. Therefore the development of Martial Speed in street combative training itself provides the answer of basic internal & external qi flow (whether the kyu ranking stylist is aware of it or not) within the practitioners basic expressive effective defensive motion skills.


Thus suggesting further examination into the stylist’s martial combat technique applications.


B. Martial Combat Technique Applications:

2. Let us now examine the Kenpo stylist’s street combat technique application. From the premise of Martial Speed the stylist executes a block, punch, and kick. Not necessarily in this respective order. Yet, in some order of adaptation to a violently aggressive advance by a gamed attacker! Thus, the attacker can very well be assumed (in his / her forceful attempt to fatally injure the practitioner) in a state of at least shao yang. If he / she is successful in attempt; this yang state will progress to extreme yang or tai yang. Therefore producing potentially fatally damaging injury to the stylist.


This brings us to another question of how does the above statement apply to martial street combat application. It rests upon the defensive execution of physical expression within each stylist’s counter-striking arsenal. This arsenal may include the basic sequence as stated above, or may include throwing, dislocating, breaking, etc, to fail the violent attack.


Now let us examine just how this technique application is executed and applied in it’s “Return To Yin State” of combat. The typical response for the kenpo stylist to this Yang attack would be to speedily block, adjust position and then advance to the physically expressive motion of striking vital points along the attacker’s body with elbows, claws, hand strike, and kick / kicks to finish the attacker’s attempt at further harm to self. Thus, his or her “Return To Yin State” can be described as the practitioner’s finishing strike, kick, punch, or throw which permanently fails the attacker’s assault. This understanding is not within context of what this “Return To Yin State” actually suggests in theory; yet it does explain how the practitioner can achieve success in defensive technique application!


This “Return To Yin State” can now be defined as the physically expressive defensive motion which the practitioner either develops through yielding, and adaptation, and / or finds as a weakness of the attacker’s aggressive attempt; in retreating into the counter-striking finishing strike’s, striking gouges, striking throws, striking throw dislocations, dislocations, throwing breaks, and breaks, etc, to fail the violent attack:


So, this definition raises the question of kicking, kneeing, and elbow striking being excluded in this “Return” conceptual methodology? The answer is a definitive no! The arsenal of countering is therefore safely assumed to be the same as the advancing arsenal of counter-striking motion methods. The difference is merely the physical intent of retreating through devastation rather than advancing in devastation.

Thus raising the final question of:


“How Is This Accomplished By The Kenpo Practitioner”?


To answer this question let us first examine the American Kenpo concept of “Slapping-Out” and “Recover / Cover-Out”. The concept of the American Kenpo styist “slapping-out” after a finishing combination of specific striking motions are executed, suggests that the practitioner can mentally remove him / herself from an intense state of mental and physical concentration in defense of a violent assault attempt, and return to a less physically exertive controlled mental environmental conscious; while maintaining a keen sense of alert. This concept can so be assumed to act as a leading guide for the practitioner to “Cover-Out”! This “Cover-Out” can then be assumed to be the actual “State Of Return” to relative safety for the practitioner to re-evaluate his / her potentially life threatening situation to self!


Therefore, one can assume primarily that the streetwise martial style of American Kenpo presently employs a type of semi-return state to mental self-control within it’s defensive and offensive striking conceptual methods. Since American Kenpo does blend Chinese martial arts systems within it’s street combat arsenal it would be safe to assume that the above form of self control (“Semi-Return To State Of Relative Safety”) very well could have been adapted from the teachings of Chinese Kung Fu. This very effective concept is common teaching among Taoist Martial Society.


Commonly in the U.S. there is no credit given to any person or martial school of thought today for this type of conceptual martial method but Great Grandmaster Ed. Parker! Yet; as previously stated, the Daoist Internal Martial Schools Of Thought used this concept long before the Birth Of American Kenpo itself!


Great Grandmaster Sun Lu Tang of the Sun Style Taiji Quan system is considered to be the Modern Day Pioneer of this Taoist Martial Philosophical Teaching of the Wu Dang Schools. Could this Taoist concept have over the years, made it’s way into the External Styles; been kept secret among it’s Masters, and taught only to their most trusted students? Kenpo / Kempo is not just a hard external style of streetwise martial combat. Nor is it just a mixture of the hard style external Gong Fu systems; as some would almost prophetically state. Kenpo / Kempo has been and is presently being blended within it’s system the softer Chinese styles which employ both internal and external conceptual theory and method. Kenpo was intended to blend the soft with the hard in producing a formidable fighting system for any whom would choose to explore it’s mysterious possibilities of self-mastery. This brings us to the main and final level of continuous martial development for the practitioner.


The Degrees Of Martial Street Combative Skill:


4. Finally, the culmination of all the tips, suggestions, dojo / kwoon testing, interpersonal training experiences outside of the training hall, independent training, and positive martial direction from Sifu, Sensei, Teacher, and / or Master; brings forth in the individual Combative Skill; with possibilities of achievement to the infinity-ith degree. The responsibility of Self-Mastery relies heavily at this stage within the individual’s ability to seek-out and implement a martial self-development program of continuous consistent positively effective change throughout his / her personal martial / physical lives! Thus, martial and physical life, (which were once separate) become one! The individual becomes the style, system, or art. The state of Wuji (equilibrium) is therefore manifested within the practitioner.


This Wuji state is also a manifestation of existence within and of the new Master’s potential for physically expressive defensive as well as offensive intent. Again, I wish only to explore and confirm the defensive view within this lecture’s martial context.


Since, it can be safely assumed that this “Return To Yin State” exists within the individual’s defensive expressive intent, rather than offensive; ( which would suggest the extremely rapid dissipation of Yang to Yin Force ending in Shao (weak yin). It would not be plausible in providing a relevant confirmation of the practitioner establishing a controlled mental state of existence due to martial skill in and after failing the violent attack. The factors of fear, adrenal imbalance, and first strike potential would overshadow the practitioner’s physical expressive skill through controlled fluid dynamic motion, precision yielding and consistent adaptation in developing an ever-changing situational martial defensive creativity in failing the violent attack!


This last statement brings us to the question of how is the “Return To Yin State” actually applied as street combat physical expressive motion for the kenpo practitioner?


This concept to defensive martial creativity can be examined within the motion of the simple technique applying come-along hold. The methodology in this analogy can consist of an unlimited number of variations. This result is confirmed by the creativity of the practitioner’s application as a prolonged finishing technique, rather than an offensive start to finish adaptation and yielding analogy! So now, we can produce the typical expressive application of defending a let’s say, right thrusting knife attack to the left abdominal tract area.


The following sequence is therefore examined as;


1. The attacker executes a right hand thrusting knife to the left abdominal tract.


2. The defender executes a right outer circular upward blocking motion (while slightly dodging right and stepping to the attacker outside with the right leg) in trapping the attacker’s thrusting arm at the wrist area.


3. As the wrist is trapped with the defenders right hand; the attacker’s thrusting arm is in the high shoulder level position. Thus, providing the defender several right side angles of creative return to the Yin State.


4. As the trapping motion occurs the defenders left hand joins in to quickly turn the attacker’s wrist clockwise as it contours up the arm to the elbow as the attacker is pulled forward in his / her lead leg for kuzushi (breaking balance) as the defenders left elbow crashes into the attacker’s elbow.


5. Let’s note at this point in the defensive creative process, the defender is countering in retreat and not in the advancing process! As the pull continues the defender then contours in reverse with his/her left hand ending at the attacker’s wrist, as the defender quickly reverses the motion to counter-clockwise within the pulling concept to check any left hand counter attempt by the attacker.


6. As the attacker’s wrist is twisted counter-clockwise, the defender lock’s the wrist and takes the knife with his/her left hand and simultaneously breaks the attacker’s middle finger in the process. Continuing the pull and arm control, the defender retreat’s further in his / her motion as devastating strikes accompany the retreat. The idea here is to retreat in devastation just as one would in the counter-striking advance.


7. As the attacker’s upper body is pulled even closer on the stationary lead leg , the defender then executes left knee crushing stomp thrust kick to the attacker’s right lead leg as the stomp then returns as a devastating left knee lift cracking the attacker’s right upper ribcage. Thus creating total compliance as the defender covers-out executing a left knife-hand strike to the attacker’s throat as he releases the wrist and “Return’s To The Yin State” of safety from harm finishing with the left outward, right inward, left inward cover and check, observing the downed attacker in relatively safety and calm.


Therefore, all striking, elbowing, kicking, and kneeing motions were executed in a retreating manner rather than advancing. The final retreating motion consisted of the left knife-hand striking motion and the right hand wrist-twisting release of the attacker’s right broken finger hand as he / she (attacker) falls to the deck on the broken lead right leg knee! With cracked right ribs; a crushed right knee, broken right elbow and broken right finger; the attacker is unable to continue any attempt to produce potentially fatal damage to anyone.


Note here, that the “Return To Yin State” process seems to suggest a type of reeling - in analogy such as a fisherman casting a fishing line with bait attached. Once the fish see’s the bait and strike’s the hook; the line is consistently reeled-in until the fish is captured by the fisherman and taken off the hook to be either thrown back into the water or prepared for the frying pan.


This understanding provides a striking similarity of the practitioner playing the role of the fisherman and the attacker playing the role of the fish!


As the come-along hold is applied to the attacker’s arm at the wrist; the attacker is then consistently reeled-in by the kenpo stylist until he / she is unable to do any harm. This is accomplished as a series of consistent retreating physical striking motions to wear the opponent down physically and mentally as he / she is rendered helpless to self and useless in producing physical bodily damage.


This brings us to our conclusion question of just “What is a retreating striking motion”?


Let us first consider a feasible definition.


Thus, ‘Retreating Striking Motion’, can be defined as any striking motion in physical execution and mental intent which produces another motion that will either set-up or become another strike (in the form of a step, punch, kick, elbow, knee, etc,) that tends to consistently pull the attacker into it’s destructive path.


A primary example of this type of motion would be the arm pulling wrist locking twist elbow & finger break while slightly stepping either angled or straight line away from the attacker’s initial assault.


The advancing motion here would have been to apply the come-along hold and wrist-locking twist while pushing the attacker away as extreme pressure is applied to the wrist!


Thus, suggesting from the later statement that there does seem to exist a "Return To Yin" analogy within the Retreating Striking Motions of the skilled kenpo practitioner!


This also suggest’s that there seems to exist a relatively infinite number of creative applications which can be derived from a single physically expressive execution of such. Surely, the final suggestion here, shows that there must exist a blending of Internal & External Force applications for this physical expressive intent to be most effective in execution and devastation as impacted bodily damage to the attacker.


So, the Return To Yin analogy in Self-Mastery is as creative as the physical expressive external & internal skills which exist within it's practitioner's 'Law Of The Fist'.





1. [a] A Study Of Taijiquan; by Sun Lutang: pages 57-58.

2. [b] A Study Of Taijiquan; by Sun Lutang: page 8.

3. [c] "The Meaning Of Tai Ji Quan"; A Study Of Taijiquan by Sun Lutang: page 57 #1.

4. [d] "The Meaning Of Tai Ji Quan"; A Study Of Taijiquan by Sun Lutang: page 58 #2.

5. [e] "The Meaning Of Tai Ji Quan"; A Study Of Taijiquan by Sun Lutang: page 58 #3.







By Deepak Rao

Copyright 2004 © Deepak Rao


Intro : The Freudian Complex is an inferiority complex to the same sex arising in infancy in every human’s unconscious mind ,which governs almost every attitude, action and thought from birth to death. It is the root cause of most misery in the human mind. It was a psychoanalytical hypothesis put forth by Sigmund Freud,the great neuro psychiatrist of the last century who coined the theory of unconscious mind dictating behavior.


A)         SEEDS-- The Birth of the Complex


The son sees his mother’s closeness to the father. He develops a guilt about his carnal desires for his mother. He worries that the father might chop off his penis (and he may resemble his sister) as a punishment. He develops an inferiority to his father who is bigger, stronger and who has a greater influence on his mother. Since then anyone bigger, stronger, better or more successful etc is identified with the father and the inferiority carried.


Similarly the daughter is worried that the mother has already chopped off her imagined penis, as punishment for her attraction to her father. Her mother has bigger breasts on which she suckles and hence her father is attached to her.


As fantasies of intimacy with the opposite gender grow, the inferiority to the parent of the same gender intensifies. At school the male child sees other boys with bigger builts, better grades and abilities, better energy at sports .He starts feeling inferior. Also at school the word “better’’ is learnt; and a confusion between “not better” and “worse” is created.


The female child sees other girls with better bodies, better grades and better qualities and the inferiority grows.


B)        THE STEM –Growth of the Complex


During Adolescence and teens, the development of bodies; sexual status, & personalities occur. Obviously development of different individuals is at a different pace. This compounds the inferiority.


Why is that boy taller than me, why has he such a handsome face, why is he better built? Why is that girl beautiful, why does she have a fuller bust, why does she have such a good pair of legs, why is she so fair?


Why does she attract so much? Why are the boys gaga over her? WHY NOT ME? And the inferiority complex creates delusions. She is convinced that none of the boys like her since she is not “not better” but she is “worse”. Even though there may be so many boys attracted to her.

Attraction of one sex to another is genetically determined by the DNA. It is almost universal, unless previous conditioning interferes. Hence most boys are attracted to most girls and vice-versa. Of course there will be good, better and the best choices, but certainly not bad, worse and better. The “ bad” is because of previous conditionings by the parents, friends, teachers, media, religion, environment and past observations.


Also smartness is envied. The ability of being good at elocution, games, communication, leadership and management is envied. The smart envy the beautiful, and the beautiful envy the smart. The smart girls think that the boys are perpetually attracted to the busty beauties and the beauties think that the boys like to flirt only with the smart girls. The result, all develop massive inferiority complexes and bitterness is born.


C) THE FLOWERS- Youth and Adult Manifestations of Freudian Complex


The young man realizes that money is power , that money confers status. The ladies want status and financial stability in the man. The athletic ability at sex is no criteria for attracting the ladies, but the job status, the pocket status are more important.


The young woman realizes that elegant clothes cut well to show the good parts, revealing dressing, padded bras, high heels and a sexy seductive attitude overshadows a naturally well asseted girl with a big bust or good bodyline wrapped in hide all clothes.


Since money is the all powerful omnipotent weapon, men commit their lives to it and develop an inferiority towards other richer men ,and women commit their lives to finding a well settled, financially stable man and their inferiority is to women with financially well off husbands.


The result is a highly complexed adult who is dissatisfied with himself and is bitter about his sexual status and envious of every other man with more money, status and sex appeal.


The woman also ends up discontent and frustrated and jealous of every other woman who is more beautiful, sexy or married to a man of greater status or financial standing.

Anyway, the Freudian inferiority provides drive for ambition,success &achievement.


C)        THE FRUIT- Marriage-The first Psychodefence for Freudian Complex


The only goal of the DNA is to replicate and reproduce. The human being like any other animal is polygamous. The sexual desire is non specific and universal with everybody getting attracted to almost everybody unless biased by previous conditioning by past etc.


In marriage, the spouse seeks a temporary defense against the freudian insecurity. The man wants his wife to convince him that he is the only man she is attracted to, that he is at least her superman , that she will be sexually satisfied only by him and that he is God’s boon, destiny’s greatest miracle for her.


The wife too wants her husband to convince her that she is the ultimate sex goddess and that he wants only her and that she is the center of his existence and that no other woman is capable of evoking sexual desires in him.


This is the unspoken agreement , the ultimate psycho defense for the freudian inferiority that at least my spouse does not find me inferior and that she or he finds all others in the world below average and somehow terribly unattractive.


E)SEEDS- Kids: The Ultimate Psychodefense  


Now as the marriage progresses, the husband finds out that the wife is attracted towards many other men and vice-versa. Now there is a conflict and the inferiority comes back with a bigger bang.

Now the woman wants to convince herself that though the husband is attracted physically to other women, he will inseminate only her and form the fruit, the union of their two souls. The man too wants his wife to bear his seed ,as this will confer on him, superiority over others whom his wife is attracted to.


But soon after the birth of the child, the inferiority resurfaces since it had never disappeared in the first place. Now cold anger and hostility is generated in both the spouses, they actually hate each other and blame each other for regeneration of their inferiorities to the same sex.


The wife desires a smaller model of her husband as her child and the husband desires a smaller model of his wife. They believe that the smaller models can be easily dominated and made to believe that they are the ultimate and superior humans of the opposite sex. The vibrations of the mother are such that the male child gets hostile to the father and the next generation of Freudian inferiority is born. And vice-versa .


F) The Destruction of Freudian Complex : 


Our society is plagued by the Freudian Complex. The people in the society want it both ways. They want themselves to be polygamous and their spouses to be monogamous. Firstly we must realize that we have an inferiority complex imbibed in us, that this is making us bitter , frustrated and dissatisfied in life. We must realize that everyone including ourselves is attractive to the opposite sex and that good, better and best will always exist. That man and woman are genetically polygamous and that sexual attraction does not confer superiority or inferiority. That sexual attraction is non-specific and universal , and that this always was, is and will be as long as we are made by the genetic code the goal of which is replication.  


Note – The opinions and psychological interpretations outlined here represent only Dr Raos thoughts and are in no way set to contradict conventional psychiatric, psychological or social concepts.





by Shing Wai Cheung

Copyright 2004 © Shing Wai Cheung


Also Known as TAI CHI CH’UAN, and is part of the Tai Chi Ch’uan System, which, originally, was a formidable martial art operating on several levels of awareness. It embodies Taoist Philosophy, and accordingly is extremely beneficial to good health.



Tai chi is a Chinese martial art that is primarily practiced for its health benefits including a means for dealing with tension and stress. Among the martial arts, there are two basic types: the hard martial arts and the soft martial arts. The latter are also called internal arts. Examples of the hard martial arts are karate and kung fu (or wushu). Examples of the soft martial arts are ba gua and tai chi. Tai chi emphasizes complete relaxation, and is essentially a form of meditation, or what has been called &meditation in motion Unlike the hard martial arts, tai chi is characterized by soft, slow, flowing movements that emphasize force, rather than brute strength.



Tai chi traces its roots back to approximately the 2nd mellennium b.c. with the practice of yoga in ancient India. In China yoga came to be developed into what is called Saolin chuan In the 13th century a.d., a Taoist monk by the name of Chang Sang Feng developed what has come to be known as Tai Chi. The tai chi family or style from which all other current styles or families of Tai Chi developed was the Chen family. A man by the name of Yang, subsequently studied with the Chen family and later modified the Chen style, thus developing the Yang style of Tai Chi Chuan.


The Yang style is the most common traditional style of Tai Chi Chuan practiced today. Yang style has three different forms that are practiced: the simplified form, the short form, and the long form.TAI CHI PHILOSOPHYTai Chi arises out of two important philosophical texts in China: the Tao Te Ching and the I Ching. Tao Te Ching, means the classic way of integrity; Both of these texts stress what the Chinese call Chi is a form of energy. Chi literally means something like breath, or spirit.According to the philosophy of tai chi, this energy or chi flows throughout the body, but can become blocked. One becomes ill when the flow of the chi through the body becomes blocked.


The Chinese free up the flow of chi by accupuncture and tai chi. Tai Chi, is a form of meditation, and helps one to understand oneself and to enable one to deal with others more effectively. This is rooted in one’s learning to control oneself. This self-control can come about through twoprincipal notions of yin and yang. The philosophy of Taoism understands everything in terms of these two opposing principles. Though these two principles are seen as opposites, the one necessarily merges into the other, creating the natural balance of self and world, hence the classic symbol of tai chi “yinyang”.


The tai chi form is meant to enable one to bring the principles of yin and yang back into their fundamental,natural harmony. The ultimate effect of this harmony, according to Taoism and Tai Chi, is one’s physical andspiritual well-being.



Tai Chi is a comprehensive series of gentle physical movements, and breathing techniques, with mental and spiritual intent, which allows you to experience a meditative state. It is calming and rejuvenating, and assists the body and mind to maintain balance, and exercises the body, mind and spirit, together with the internal organs. It includes both the inner and outer expressions of the body and mind.


Here we are able to balance the Yin and Yang life force energy of Chi. In this way this system develops the ability to balance the “yielding and attacking” aspects in martial art combat. It has also been a major influence in all the martial arts we see today.